Lyme disease: How is Lyme borreliosis treated?

Understanding Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. The disease can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, Lyme disease can spread to the joints, heart, and nervous system, leading to more severe symptoms.

Early treatment

Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease are crucial in preventing the progression of the illness. In the early stages, Lyme disease is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime. These medications are effective in killing the bacteria and reducing the symptoms of the disease. The duration of antibiotic treatment may vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual’s response to the medication.

Chronic or persistent Lyme disease

In some cases, Lyme disease may not be fully eradicated with the initial course of antibiotics, leading to persistent or chronic symptoms. This condition is often referred to as chronic Lyme disease or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The treatment of chronic Lyme disease is more complex and may require a multidisciplinary approach.

Long-term antibiotic therapy

Some healthcare providers may recommend long-term antibiotic therapy for patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms. This approach is controversial and has been the subject of much debate within the medical community. While some studies suggest that long-term antibiotics may be beneficial for certain individuals, others argue that prolonged antibiotic use can lead to antibiotic resistance and other adverse effects.

Alternative and complementary therapies

Many individuals with chronic Lyme disease seek alternative or complementary therapies to manage their symptoms. These may include herbal supplements, acupuncture, dietary changes, and other holistic approaches. While these therapies may provide some relief for certain individuals, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before pursuing any alternative treatments, as they may not be supported by scientific evidence and could potentially interfere with conventional medical care.

Prevention and lifestyle management

Preventing Lyme disease is key to avoiding the need for treatment. This can be achieved by taking precautions to avoid tick bites, such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and conducting thorough tick checks after spending time outdoors. Additionally, individuals living in or visiting areas where Lyme disease is prevalent should be vigilant for early symptoms and seek prompt medical attention if they suspect they have been exposed to ticks.

Managing chronic symptoms

For individuals with persistent Lyme disease symptoms, lifestyle management and supportive care are important aspects of treatment. This may include pain management, physical therapy, and psychological support to help individuals cope with the challenges of living with chronic illness. Engaging in regular exercise, maintaining a healthy diet, and getting adequate rest can also help improve overall well-being and manage symptoms.


Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is a complex illness that requires early detection and appropriate treatment to prevent long-term complications. While antibiotics are the primary treatment for early-stage Lyme disease, the management of chronic or persistent symptoms may involve a combination of medical, alternative, and lifestyle-based approaches. It is important for individuals with Lyme disease to work closely with healthcare providers to develop a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses their unique needs and circumstances.